Advice That Gets You Agents & Sales

Tag: Save the Cat

Screenwriting tip of the day; Why Specs Sold


One thing that can really help rookie, or working screenwriters, trying to sell features, is to read the spec scripts that the studios bought recently.

While I was researching where to find those scripts, I found this article by Eric Bork, a screenwriter and a blogger. He breaks down what the specs that sold had in common. 

This blog was written back in 2012, but it’s still very relevant.  In one respect the prospect of selling your spec script is worse today in 2016.  (Sorry)  So far (in April 2016) only 11 screenplays have been purchased by the studios or production companies. 

Extrapolating, there will only be 33 screenplays bought this year.  I want to re-iterate, spec scripts rarely get sold and produced.

Ninety percent of the time, the best outcome for a spec script is that it becomes a “calling card” script. It’s the script that gets you into meetings with producers, studio executives, agents or managers.  You should be thinking along those lines.  If you get those meetings, you’ve succeeded.

Back to 2012.  132 spec scripts sold.  One thing all the spec scripts that sold had in common was they fit nicely into Save the Cat’s 10 Genres.

Here’s the list and the Save the Cat genres they represent.

We screenwriters want to sell our work, naturally. This, of course, is very rare. How rare? Well, in 2012, according to The Scoggins Report’s “Year-End Spec Market Scorecard”, there were 132 “spec sales” – or scripts that sold — in the entire year. And this matched a 15-year record HIGH from 2011. And this is not just studio sales – this includes all buyers who were known to have bought a spec screenplay from a writer, according to my friend Jason Scoggins’ research. (He’s been compiling this information – and making it available for free – for many years.)

But the point of this post is not to discourage you – as you consider how many tens of thousands of scripts did not sell, so that these 132 could. My point is to offer a few observations about those scripts that sold, and especially about their content – as evidenced by the logline and genre information the “Scorecard” includes.

I think reading these loglines can be incredibly helpful for aspiring professional screenwriters, to get a sense of what makes a marketable concept. It’s one thing to hear that “a great logline is important, and the first thing to focus on.” Which is true. It’s another to read the actual loglines of scripts that actually sold, in the last year.

Below are 10 examples, out of the 132. A few things jump out at me about these (and the larger list), besides the fact that they all have premises that are clear from the logline, and sound fresh, compelling and entertaining – like big challenges for a relatable main character.

1. The writers generally had both an agent and manager. These days, that seems typical. A manager might be easier to get, and can eventually lead you to an agent. Who is more directly involved in brokering a sale.

2. There aren’t a lot of straight dramas – only 8% of the 132. To sell, it’s important to have a very strong entertainment component, and dramas tend to feel more “flat” – even if they are well executed. So the sales included 27% thrillers, 22% action/adventure, and 21% comedies. Plus 11% sci-fi and 10% horror. Drama comes in dead last.

3. The concepts clearly read like a fresh twist on an established genre – not only the traditional definition of “genre” (comedy, thriller, etc.), but also the ten “genres” or types of stories that Blake Snyder identified in his Save the Cat books. These are my single favorite tool for screenwriters, and I strongly recommend writers know these types, and seek to write squarely within one of them, with every script.

When I watch movie trailers, it’s almost always very obvious that each film fits one of these genres. And I think it’s hard to find successful movies which don’t. On my website, I’ve recently added a modified PDF chart of the ten genres and fifty subgenres from the Save the Cat website, where I added additional recent and classic titles that I think fit each genre. I really believe every good and successful movie fits one of them.

Without further ado, here are the ten examples of 2012 spec sales, with my comments on their apparent Save the Cat genres, under each entry:

Dear Satan

Writer: Dan Ewen
Reps: APA (Chris Ridenhour, Will Lowery) and Elements Entertainment (Christopher Pratt)
Genre: Comedy
Buyer: Fox
Logline: Follows a young girl who accidentally misspells Santa and instead invites Satan to bring her a toy for Christmas.

Save the Cat genre: “OUT OF THE BOTTLE”: Where a “wish” leads to a magic “spell” that will complicate life greatly, and lead ultimately to an important “lesson”. As in Liar Liar, The Nutty Professor or The Change-Up.


Writer: Barry Levy
Reps: UTA (Charlie Ferraro, Keya Khayatian, David Park) and Evolution (Stephen Gates, Stephan Marks)
Buyer: Universal
Genre: Thriller
Logline: A New York detective must figure out which twin brother actually robbed a bank and stole sensitive counterfeiting information, when both confess to the crime.

Save the Cat genre: “WHYDUNIT”, which focuses on a “detective” of some sort, figuring out not just who did it, but why, which generally involves a “secret”, and a “dark turn”. As in L.A. Confidential, Chinatown or Mystic River.

52 Percent

Writer: Zina Zaflow
Reps: Chad Snopek Management (Chad Snopek)
Buyer: QED International
Genre: Romantic comedy
Logline: When a longtime married couple contemplates divorce, a clash develops between their daughter, who hopes for reconciliation, and a jaded young divorce attorney, who’s unwilling to lose a client without a fight.

Save the Cat genre: “BUDDY LOVE”: A romantic comedy about the attorney and daughter’s relationship (I presume), in which an “incomplete hero” meets their perfect “counterpart” (who we think they should end up with), but there’s a “complication” –something big that’s in the way of the relationship, which the movie mainly focuses on. As in Wedding Crashers, Pretty Woman or Brokeback Mountain.

Blood Mountain

Writer: Jonathan Stokes
Reps: UTA (Ramses Ishak, Michael Sheresky, Scott Carr, Geoff Morely) and Energy Entertainment (Brooklyn Weaver)
Buyer: Derby Street Films
Genre: Thriller
Logline: After his team is ambushed and killed in Pakistan, a young army ranger must escort the world’s most wanted terrorist over dangerous terrain in order to bring him to justice. While being hunted by both of their enemies, they must find a way to work together in order to survive.

Save the Cat genre: “GOLDEN FLEECE” (“Epic” subgenre): Where a “team” goes down a long “road”, toward an important “prize” – which will make their lives much better if they reach it, and much worse if they don’t. As in Saving Private Ryan, Star Wars or The Rock.


Writers: Brian & Jim Kehoe
Reps: DMG Entertainment (Chris Fenton)
Buyer: Good Universe
Genre: Action comedy
Logline: Three naive dads band together to stop their high school sophomore daughters from making good on a prom night sex pact. “The Hangover” meets “Taken.”

Save the Cat genre: Also a “GOLDEN FLEECE” (“Buddy” subgenre): with a clear team, road, and prize – akin to The Hangover, Finding Nemo or The Wizard of Oz.

Lights Out

Writer: Jay Frasco
Reps: APA (Ryan Saul) and Festa Entertainment (Dannie Festa)
Buyer: Universal Pictures, SyFy Films
Genre: Sci-fi thriller
Logline: The story focuses on a teenage boy trapped in his house with his sister when a deadly intruder enters the home and “mysterious events” start to occur.

Save the Cat genre: “MONSTER IN THE HOUSE”: Where there is a constant life-and-death threat from a “monster” that our main characters are trapped in something akin to a “house” with — and it all began with some real or perceived “sin”. As in Alien, Fatal Attraction or Psycho.

The Counselor

Writer: Cormac McCarthy
Reps: ICM (Amanda “Binky” Urban, Ron Bernstein)
Buyer: Nick Wechsler Productions and Chockstone
Genre: Drama
Logline: Follows a respected lawyer who thinks he can dip a toe into the drug business without getting sucked in.

“Save the Cat genre: INSTITUTIONALIZED”: Where an individual gets mixed up with a “group” of some sort, with its own challenging and morally questionable culture, which leads them ultimately to have to make a “choice” and “sacrifice” around the question of staying with it, or turning against it. As in The Godfather, The Devil Wears Prada or One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest.


Writer: Derek Kolstad
Reps: UTA (Charlie Ferraro) and New Wave Entertainment (Mike Goldberg, Josh Adler)
Buyer: Voltage Pictures
Genre: Thriller
Logline: Centers on a rogue government agency that blackmails ordinary citizens into committing acts of terror. The agency comes under attack when the wife of a retired operative is mistakenly kidnapped and the former operative sets out to take the agency down.

Save the Cat genre: “SUPERHERO”: Where a hero with a “special power” but also a “curse” of some kind (the former operative, in this case, it would seem) takes on a “nemesis”, in order to protect or help innocent others. As in Erin Brockovich, The Matrix or Harry Potter.

Son of a Bitch

Writer: Kelly Oxford
Reps: WME (Cliff Roberts, Lisa Harrison) and Anonymous Content (Steve Golin, Kelly Kohansky Roberts)
Buyer: Warner Bros.
Genre: Comedy
Logline: A popular party girl tries to maintain her image despite recently becoming pregnant.

Save the Cat genre: “RITE OF PASSAGE”: Where a relatable “life problem” inspires the main character to react in a “wrong way” – chasing an ill-advised goal, where complications ensue, until finally they fail and reach some level of “acceptance” of life as it is. As in Superbad, The War of the Roses or My Best Friend’s Wedding.

Not Safe For Work aka NSFW

Writers: Simon Boyes & Adam Mason
Reps: WME (Daniel Cohan) and Brucks Entertainment (Bryan Brucks)
Buyer: Universal
Genre: Thriller
Logline: A young paralegal is trapped in an office with a killer on a secret mission to destroy files and anyone who stands in his path.

Save the Cat genre: “DUDE WITH A PROBLEM”: Where an “innocent hero” finds that a “sudden event” turns into an adrenalized “life or death battle” that powers the rest of the movie. As in Die Hard, Misery or Apollo 13.

Just for completeness sake, the one Save the Cat genre not represented on this list is the “Fool Triumphant” – where a seeming naïve “fool” gets involved with a more worldly “establishment,” and goes through a “transmutation” that results in them triumphing over all – as in Legally Blonde, The 40-Year-Old Virgin and Forrest Gump.
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“Demolition” Broken Into Save the Cat Story Beats

Jake Gyllenhaal 

1. Opening Image (pg 1 – 3): The audience is first engaged with something compelling that sets the tone – and we begin to see how things as they are today.

While Davis (Jake Gyllenhaal) and his wife, Julia drive his BMW Sportster through Manhattan, she talks about a leak she’s noticed in their refrigerator.  Davis has no idea about this, in fact he comes off as an uncaring, self-absorbed husband who is oblivious to his wife’s needs.

2. Catalyst (pg 3): An event rocks the main character’s world completely, and sets in motion the central problem of the story. It’s an external problem (not just internal, about thoughts and emotions) — it has clear and present stakes we can identify with and feel.

Davis and Julia are the victims of a violent crash, which kills Julia. Davis is in shock, he feels lost. What was his life about? What was his marriage about? What kind of person is he? He realizes never loved Julia.

This catalyst prompts him to explore who he is. He begins to grieve, in his own strange way.

3. Theme Stated (pg 14): Usually spoken to the main character in a snippet of dialogue, this gives a sense of the deeper issues that this story is “about.”

Phil, Davis’ father-in-law comforts him, saying “repairing the human heart is like repairing an automobile. You have to take everything apart. The anger, the love, the loss.”

4. Set-Up Section (pgs 1-11): We get to know the main character, who is living a compromised life in some way, while dealing with problems – and has something about them we can respect or like.

After a vending machine malfunctions, and he doesn’t get the M & Ms he paid for, Davis begins by writing intensely personal autobiographical letters to the customer service representative at the vending machine company. He is reaching out.

Through his letters to the vending machine company, we learn more about Davis’ life. He has an everyday routine, working for his father-in -law (Phil, played by Chris Cooper) at an investment company. He’s been on autopilot the whole time.

Davis shows up at work, and appears to be in denial about his wife’s death. His secretary is surprised he came to work at all. Davis declines to talk about his loss, and goes about his day at work.

Davis appears to be thoroughly dislikeable, yet funny in a dark sense. They closest thing to a “Save the Cat” moment, for him, is the sympathy we feel for him after his wife dies. As we watch him suffer in his own weird non-empathic way, we can’t help hoping that he can grow and cope.

5. Debate Section (pgs 12-25): The main character questions what has happened, tries to figure out what to do, and often seeks to avoid the true “call to adventure.”

The writer sets up a subplot between Phil and Davis on pages 14-15. Phil wants to take the 1.7 million dollars in life insurance due to Davis, to set up a scholarship in Julia’s name.

Unable to process much of anything yet, Davis agrees at first.

Davis begins to start grieving in his own way. He doesn’t know how. He opens up to a guy on the train who he’s talked to before.

He admits that everything he’s told this man is a lie – he doesn’t sell mattresses, he doesn’t like the Sox, in fact he hates baseball.

He admits that he didn’t love his wife, and he doesn’t feel sad that she’s died.

While on the train, he doesn’t notice that the customer service representative Karen (Naomi Watts) is following him for some reason.

He begins having daydreams about unpacking, and dismantling things.

At the airport, he pictures people’s baggage dumped into a pile on the floor. He pictures himself shooting a terrorist, defending his country.

He’s trying to figure out how to grieve, and how to unpack and understand his relationship with Julia. The debate is over on pgs 23-26.

6. Break into Two (pg 23- 26): Act 2. The main character becomes pulled into a world completely out of his element. He’s overmatched as the attempts to confront his story problem.

After weighing the advice from his father-in-law “you have to take everything apart,” Davis commits to a new course of action, he crosses the point of no return — he decides his course of grieving and processing will involve dismantling things, starting with the leaky refrigerator.

7. B Story (pg 27): A second story begins, which will run parallel to the “A Story”, and interweave with it throughout the rest of the movie. The theme and the character’s inner journey tends to be explored here.

Davis gets a phone call at two in the morning from Karen. (Romantic subplot). She was moved by his letters, they were so honest, and they made her cry. He feels a connection to her.

Davis decides they should meet. He’s moving into a new world, of action, of proactive grieving, and he decides to get closer to Karen.

8. Fun and Games Section (pg 29- 49): The entertaining aspects of the story’s premise are explored – which are fun to watch, but NOT fun for the main character, who is essentially in HELL until the end of the story.

Davis and Karen have a date, but do not actually meet. Davis goes into the diner they were supposed to meet at, while Karen stays parked outside, smoking pot, observing.

She calls him on his cell, and they talk. She appears to have problems with connecting with people, too. She doesn’t join his in the diner, but drives off.

Davis continues his search for answers, and tries a social experiment, handcuffing his briefcase to his own wrist, and walks around Manhattan. He seems to enjoy messing with people’s heads.

He dismantles and demolishes a cappuccino machine his wife had delivered to his home before she died.

He shows up at the vending machine company looking for Karen, but runs into a Carl, man (we’ll learn later) who’s her fiancé.

We meet Karen’s son Chris, who presents a science experiment at school, in which he blows up toy soldiers with an M 80, and sprays hair spray on it, so it goes up in flames. He explains to his class, that it’s a metaphor for war.

Karen isn’t sure what to make of her son’s sadistic streak.

We find out that Karen considers herself a loser, and a pothead. She is not really in love with Carl, but still rooms with him, but can’t bring herself to agree to marriage.

At work, Davis finds a squeaky stall door in the men’s room. Following his new commitment to demolish things, he tears it apart. Phil wants to know what’s going on?

Davis tells Phil, “I think I quit.” Phil tells him to take a couple months off, instead.

9. Midpoint (pg 49): The stakes are raised: the problem becomes more focused, more serious, more important and urgent.

After trying to quit, and getting time off instead, Davis tells himself, “From now on, it’s me and my tools.”

He drives by a construction site where the workers are demolishing a home, and joins in, taking a sledgehammer to the walls. He’s doubling down on finding answers by demolishing things.

10. Bad Guys Close In Section (pg 49- 87/90): Problems get worse and worse – the hero to be failing in their approach, and/or is facing more and more seemingly impossible obstacles.

Davis finds Karen’s address and visits her. She asks, “Are you going to disappoint me? Can you promise not to?”

Davis gets involved in the demolition of an amusement park.

Davis notices a station wagon following him. The audience wonders, is it Carl? Is it dangerous? Later we learn that Carl has a gun.

Davis goes to a doctor, claiming he can’t feel anything. He has a daydream about his heart being eaten by gypsy moths.

He goes back to the construction site and continues with the demolition of the house. He steps on a three inch nail and discovers that he can feel something. Pain.

Davis and Karen discuss “when was the last time you felt something?” He thinks about it and decides, in school, when he was running.

Davis runs into Chris at Karen’s house, where the boy is struggling with his “homosexual panic.” He pulls out a gun.

Davis stops him from hurting himself, and instead invites Chris to shoot him while wearing a bullet-proof vest, so he can feel it.

Davis has a daydream in which Julia asks him if he’s “taken me apart yet?”

Davis connects with Chris further, encouraging him to pretend to be interested in girls, then move to a gay-friendly city like San Francisco.

Davis gets hold of a bulldozer, and trashes his house. While tearing the house apart, he finds a sonogram, and realized that Julia was pregnant when she died. It’s a shock, and it saddens him.

11. All Is Lost (pg 87 -91): The story seems to be over, and the hero appears to have no hope. Everything the hero’s trying has failed, and they have no other options.

When he finds his wife’s sonogram (on page 87) Davis feels shocked, devastated and saddened very deeply.

For Chris; the boy gets brutally beat up by homophobic kids at school.

For the romantic subplot; Karen talks about Carl returning, on the phone, she tells him, “I miss you.” Is she deciding on Carl over Davis?

Karen kisses Davis, but there’s no reaction. Karen says, “it’s not fair that “you feel everything and I feel nothing.”

12. Dark Night of the Soul: (pg 87-91) The main character reels from the “all is lost” – and there’s often a “whiff of death.”

The “whiff of death” is apparent in this general area, including the discovery of the sonogram, and the reveal that not only Julia, but Davis’ baby has died, and with Chris taking Carl’s gun, driving off to get revenge.

13. Break into Three (pg 91): Act 3. A new idea, a new plan for solving the problem emerges (often the A Story and B Story “cross” – the B Story should also be unresolved and at its worst).

Davis invites Karen to a party at his father-in-law’s place. He’s formulated a plan that may resolve his relationship with Karen, and put an end to Phil’s scholarship idea, for Julia’s legacy.

He laughs out loud, as Phil introduces the first scholarship contenders. He stands up to Phil.

14. Finale Section (pg 91- 112): Solving the problem. The hero fails at first, and is pressed to his limit – confronts his own demons, and possibly changes his life – before the story problem is finally resolved.

Karen is embarrassed by Davis’ behavior at the party, and they argue. Karen sneaks out to smoke some pot. She tells Davis “I’m broken, too. I don’t know how to help you.”

Davis learns that the baby in the sonogram wasn’t his. Julia had an affair, when you weren’t paying attention to her. Meg (Phil’s wife) tells Davis, “you don’t matter.” Phil kicks Davis and Karen out of his party.

Page 99, Carl returns home to find Davis there with Karen. Davis stands up to Carl, but gets a brutal beating. Carl continues beating Davis, then tells him to fight back. Davis can’t.

Davis attempts to repair his relationship with Karen. He tries to meet her at the diner, the site of their first awkward “date.”

Karen tells Davis, “Carl’s forgiven me. I left him anyway.” She gives Davis a letter from Chris that tells Davis to meet him at a park on Saturday at 11 am.

Davis at the park – he witnesses the total demolition of three buildings. It’s a powerful image. Davis breaks down and cries, mourning all he’s lost. He can’t stop crying. This feels like the catharsis he’s been struggling to feel.

Davis meets with Phil at Jason’s pub. He wants to know what made Julia happy. Phil remembers, she was happiest riding the horses.

Davis then argues that the scholarship fund is not a fitting legacy for Julia. “It isn’t a legacy, it’s a bank account.”

David takes Phil to the amusement park he once demolished. The carousel has been completely restored. The place is full of life. A sign reads, “Julia’s Carousel.”

Davis walks around the amusement park, then begins to run, finally feeling some release.

Voice Over from his final letter says, “I didn’t learn to be a better person. I guess I just feel a little bit better. I feel like myself…”

15. Final Image (pg 113): Reflecting the new status quo now that this story is over.

Davis goes home to the rubble that’s left of his house, after he took the bulldozer to it. The mailman comes by and asks if Davis is doing some renovations. Davis says, “I’m thinking about it.”

It’s as if he’s done with demolition and is considering rebuilding. This hints at a new normal for Davis.

The mailman hands him a letter. Inside is a check from the vending machine company, along with a refund, for the M & Ms, a check for 75 cents.

If you’d like your screenplay analysed for strength in story structure, so you can send the best version of yourscript out, go to my website, or call me at 310-850-4707. 

You only get one chance to send it out.  Make sure it’s in the best possible shape fiYou’ve worked for months and years on it, don’t take chances when you can get feedback from a professional.

Image credit: Creative Commons, detail from zodiac, 2007 by Anthony Easton, is licensed under CC By 2.0